Panel Members

Mr. Paul A Volcker, who in the course of his career worked in the United States government for almost 30 years, is well known for his two terms as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 1979 to 1987. He divided the earlier stages of his career between the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Treasury Department, and the Chase Manhattan Bank. Mr. Volcker retired as Chairman of Wolfensohn & Co. upon the merger of that firm with Bankers Trust. From 1996 to 1999, Mr. Volcker headed a committee formed to determine existing dormant accounts and other assets in Swiss banks of victims of Nazi persecution. From 2000 to 2005, Mr. Volcker served as Chairman of the Trustees of the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation, overseeing a renewed effort to develop consistent, high-quality accounting standards acceptable in all countries. In 2003, he headed the National Commission on the Public Service recommending a sweeping overhaul of the organization and personnel practices of the United States federal government. In April 2004, Mr. Volcker was asked by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan to chair the Independent Inquiry Committee into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Program in Iraq. The Independent Inquiry Committee published multiple reports describing corruption and maladministration of the Oil-for-Food Program. Pursuing his many continuing interests in public policy, Mr. Volcker is associated with the Japan Society, the Institute of International Economics, the American Assembly, and the American Council on Germany. He is Honorary Chairman of the Trilateral Commission and Chairman of the Trustees of the Group of 30. Educated at Princeton, Harvard, and the London School of Economics, Mr. Volcker is Professor Emeritus of International Economic Policy at Princeton University and was the first Henry Kaufman Visiting Professor at the Stern School of Business at NYU.

Mr. Gustavo Gaviria, who has worked since 1974 in the coffee and finance industries in Colombia. Mr. Gaviria is third generation in the coffee industry of Colombia and is founder and President of Industrias Aliadas S.A. and founder and chairman of Coffeecol, Inc. Mr. Gaviria is also founder and President of Vision de Valores S.A. Since 2004 he has served on the Board of Directors of Ecopetrol, the largest company in Colombia, where he heads the Committee on Corporate Governance. From 1999 to 2004, he was a Senior Advisor in the Executive Director’s office at the World Bank.

Mr. John Githongo, who is a former journalist and anti-corruption official in Kenya. In 1999, he founded the Kenya chapter of Transparency International, and in 2003, President Mwai Kibaki appointed him Permanent Secretary of Governance and Ethics, a position from which he resigned in early 2005. He is currently a Senior Associate Member of St. Antony’s College at Oxford University in the United Kingdom.

Mr. Ben W. Heineman, Jr., who is a Distinguished Senior Fellow at Harvard Law School and a Senior Fellow at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, where he is teaching and writing in the area of governance. He spent much of his early career in private practice and in government in Washington, D.C., including as law clerk to Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, and he now maintains an association with WilmerHale as Senior Counsel. From 1987 to 2005, he was Senior Vice President and General Counsel, and then Senior Vice President for Law & Public Affairs, for the General Electric Company where he dealt with matters directly relevant to maintaining high ethical standards in an international organization.

Mr. Walter Van Gerven, who is a distinguished European Union legal author and law professor at Leuven (Belgium) and Tilburg (the Netherlands) Universities with visiting fellowships at, a. o., Chicago, Stanford, Michigan, Paris II, and King’s College London. From 1962 to1967, he was an associate in the Brussels office of Cleary, Gottlieb, and then a founding partner in 1970 of a leading Brussels law firm which was subsequently acquired by Linklaters. From 1982 to 1988, he served as the President of the Belgian Banking Commission; from 1988 to 1994, he was Advocate-General in the European Court of Justice; and in 1999 he served as one of five members of the Committee of Independent Experts investigating allegations regarding fraud, mismanagement and nepotism in the European Commission, and formulating recommendations resulting in various reforms.

Sir John Vereker, who is the Governor of Bermuda, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Briefly a staff member of the World Bank from 1970 to 1972, he has spent most of his career in the United Kingdom government, including a three-year period in the Policy Unit of the Prime Minister’s Office from 1980 to 1983. In 1994, he became the Permanent Secretary of the United Kingdom’s Overseas Development Administration and its successor, the Department for International Development (DFID), a position that he held until becoming Governor of Bermuda in 2002.